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时间: 2019年12月14日 00:07

� LORD ALTHORP (3RD EARL SPENCER). � Of all testimonies to the restored supremacy of Aristotelianism, there is none so remarkable as that afforded by the thinker who, more than any other, has enjoyed the credit of its overthrow. To call Francis Bacon an Aristotelian will seem to most readers a paradox. Such an appellation would, however, be much nearer the truth than were the titles formerly bestowed on the author of the Novum Organum. The notion, indeed, that he was in any sense the father of modern science is rapidly disappearing from the creed of educated persons. Its long continuance was due to a coalition of literary men who knew nothing about physics and of physicists who knew nothing about philosophy or its history. It is certain that the great discoveries made both before and during Bacon lifetime were the starting-point of all future progress in the same direction. It is equally certain that Bacon himself had either not heard of those discoveries or that he persistently rejected them. But it might still be contended that he divined and formulated the only method by which these and all other great additions to human knowledge have been made, had not the delusion been dispelled by recent investigations, more especially those of his own editors, Messrs. Ellis and Spedding. Mr. Spedding has shown that Bacon method never was applied to physical science at all. Mr. Ellis has shown that it was incapable of application, being founded on a complete misconception of the problem to be solved. The facts could in truth, hardly have been other373 than what they are. Had Bacon succeeded in laying down the lines of future investigation, it would have been a telling argument against his own implied belief that all knowledge is derived from experience. For, granting the validity of that belief, a true theory of discovery can only be reached by an induction from the observed facts of scientific practice, and such facts did not, at that time, exist in sufficient numbers to warrant an induction. It would have been still more extraordinary had he furnished a clue to the labyrinth of Nature without ever having explored its mazes on his own account. Even as it is, from Bacon own point of view the contradiction remains. If ever any system was constructed 脿 priori the Instauratio Magna was. But there is really no such thing as 脿 priori speculation. Apart from observation, the keenest and boldest intellect can do no more than rearrange the materials supplied by tradition, or give a higher generalisation to the principles of other philosophers. This was precisely what Bacon did. The wealth of aphoristic wisdom and ingenious illustration scattered through his writings belongs entirely to himself; but his dream of using science as an instrument for acquiring unlimited power over Nature is inherited from the astrologers, alchemists, and magicians of the Middle Ages; and his philosophical system, with which alone we are here concerned, is partly a modification, partly an extension, of Aristotle. An examination of its leading features will at once make this clear. With so powerful a protector, Alexander might safely bid his enemies defiance. The governor of Bithynia had to entreat Lucian, whose life had been threatened by the impostor, to keep out of harm way. 楽hould anything happen to you,?he said, 業 could not afford to offend Rutilianus by bringing his father-in-law to justice.?Even the best and wisest man then living yielded to the prevalent delusion. Marcus Aurelius, who was at that time fighting with the Marcomanni, was induced to act on an oracle from Abonuteichus, promising that if two lions were thrown into the Danube a great victory would be the result. The animals made their way safely to the opposite bank; but were beaten to death with clubs by the barbarians, who mistook them for some outlandish kind of wolf or dog; and the imperial army was shortly afterwards defeated with a loss of 20,000 men.346 Alexander helped himself out of the difficulty with the stale excuse that he had only foretold a victory, without saying which side should win. He was not more successful in determining the duration of his own life, which came to an end before he had completed seventy years, instead of lasting, as he had prophesied, for a hundred and fifty. This miscalculation, however, seems not to have impaired his reputation, for even after his death it was believed that a statue of him in the market-place of Parium in Mysia had the power of giving oracles.347 A coroner's jury was duly summoned. It examined the body, weighed the evidence, and being about equally divided in regard to the question of suicide, finally agreed upon "Accidental Death by Poison," as, upon the whole, the safer and less objectionable verdict. There seemed to be no good reason to suspect murder, nor any ground whatever for implicating Roath, or anybody else, as a perpetrator thereof. 日本片在线看的免费网站 He learned, first of all, not to start up an engine while the tail of the ship pointed toward a hangar, or other open building, or toward a crowd, in future, on a field. He learned, first of all, not to start up an engine while the tail of the ship pointed toward a hangar, or other open building, or toward a crowd, in future, on a field. The Remainder of the Session擳he Coercion Bill carried擱ejection of the Tithes Bill擴niversity Tests擯rorogation of Parliament擝rougham's Tour in Scotland擝urning of the Houses of Parliament擣all of Melbourne's Ministry擶ellington sole Minister擯eel forms a Ministry擳he Tamworth Manifesto擠issolution and General Election擬r. Abercromby elected Speaker擳he Lichfield House Compact擯eel defeated on the Address擫ord John Russell announces a Resolution on Appropriation擫ord Chandos's Motion擫ord Londonderry's Appointment擳he Dissenters and London University擧ardinge's Tithe Bill擳he Appropriation Resolution擳he Debate擯eel resigns擬elbourne's second Ministry擟onservative Successes擫ord Alvanley and O'Connell擳he Duel between Alvanley and Morgan O'Connell擮'Connell and Disraeli擟haracter of Lord Melbourne擬unicipal Reform擱eport of the Commission擳he Municipal Corporations Act introduced擨ts Progress in the Commons擫yndhurst's Amendments-It becomes Law擨rish Corporations擱eport of the Commission擳he Bill is mutilated in the Upper House, and abandoned擨t becomes Law in 1840擬unicipal Reform in Scotland. � 淗o-ho-ho-ho! That good. Suspicious Sandy攊s that somebody inside the hangar??Dick changed his tone suddenly, dropping his voice to a whisper as he stooped and saw something move behind the old amphibian at the back of the building.