The poverty of spirit and inward weakness, with which I was much tried thefore part of this journey, has of late appeared to me a dispensation ofkindness. Appointing meetings never appeared more weighty to me, and I was ledinto a deep search whether in all things my mind was resigned to the will ofGod; often querying with myself what should be the cause of such inwardpoverty, and greatly desiring that no secret reserve in my heart might hindermy access to the divine fountain. In these humbling times I was made watchful,and excited to attend to the secret movings of the heavenly principle in mymind, which prepared the way to some duties, that, in more easy and prosperoustimes as to the outward, I believe I should have been in danger of omitting. The wages of labouring men in several counties toward London at tenpence perday in common business, the employer finds small beer and the labourer findshis own food; but in harvest and hay time wages are about one shilling per day,and the labourer hath all his diet. In some parts of the north of England, poorlabouring men have their food where they work, and appear in common to dorather better than nearer London. Industrious women who spin in the factoriesget some fourpence, some fivepence, and so on to six, seven, eight, nine, ortenpence per day, and find their own house-room and diet. Great numbers of poorpeople live chiefly on bread and water in the southern parts of England, aswell as in the northern parts; and there are many poor children not even taughtto read. May those who have abundance lay these things to heart! Nor is this all. After sharply distinguishing what is from what is not, and refusing to admit any intermediary between them, Aristotle proceeds to discover such an intermediary in the shape of what he calls Accidental Predication.236 An accident is an attribute not necessarily or usually inhering in its subject攊n other words, a co-existence not dependent on causation. Aristotle could never distinguish between the two notions of cause and kind, nor yet between interferences with the action of some particular cause and exceptions to the law of causation in general; and so he could not frame an intelligible theory of chance. Some propositions, he tells us, are necessarily true, others are only generally true; and it is the exceptions to the latter which constitute accident; as, for instance, when a cold day happens to come in the middle341 of summer. So also a man is necessarily an animal, but only exceptionally white. Such distinctions are not uninteresting, for they prove with what difficulties the idea of invariable sequence had to contend before even the highest intellects could grasp it. There was a constant liability to confound the order of succession with the order of co-existence, the order of our sensations with the order of objective existence, and the subjection of human actions to any fixed order, with the impossibility of deliberation and choice. The earlier Greek thinkers had proclaimed that all things existed by necessity; but with their purely geometrical or historical point of view, they entirely ignored the more complex questions raised by theories about classification, logical attribution, and moral responsibility. And the modifications introduced by Epicurus, into the old physics, show us how unanswerable Aristotle reasonings seemed to some of his ablest successors. 亚洲 欧美 中文 日韩aV 17 The Monthly Meeting of Philadelphia having been under a concern on account ofsome Friends who this summer (1758) had bought negro slaves, proposed to theirQuarterly Meeting to have the minute reconsidered in the Yearly Meeting, whichwas made last on that subject, and the said Quarterly Meeting appointed acommittee to consider it, and to report to their next. This committee havingmet once and adjourned, and I, going to Philadelphia to meet a committee of theYearly Meeting, was in town the evening on which the Quarterly Meeting'scommittee met the second time, and finding an inclination to sit with them, Iwith some others was admitted, and Friends had a weighty conference on thesubject. Soon after their next Quarterly meeting I heard that the case wascoming to our Yearly Meeting. This brought a weighty exercise upon me, andunder a sense of my own infirmities, and the great danger I felt of turningaside from perfect purity, my mind was often drawn to retire alone, and put upmy prayers to the Lord that He would be graciously pleased to strengthen me;that, setting aside all views of self-interest and the friendship of thisworld, I might stand fully resigned to His holy will. For neither house nor city flanked with towers We lodged at Bethlehem, and there parting with John, William and we wentforward on the 9th of the Sixth Month, and got lodging on the floor of a house,about five miles from Fort Allen. Here we parted with William, and at thisplace we met with an Indian trader lately come from Wyoming. In conversationwith him, I perceived that many white people often sell rum to the Indians,which I believe is a great evil. In the first place, they are thereby deprivedof the use of reason, and, their spirits being violently agitated, quarrelsoften arise which end in mischief, and the bitterness and resentment occasionedhereby are frequently of long continuance. Again, their skins and furs, gottenthrough much fatigue and hard travels in hunting, with which they intended tobuy clothing, they often sell at a low rate for more rum, when they becomeintoxicated; and afterward, when they suffer for want of the necessaries oflife, are angry with those who, for the sake of gain, took advantage of theirweakness.