时间: 2019年12月13日 10:21

Then I thought of getting a hat the natural colour of the fur, but theapprehension of being looked upon as one affecting singularity felt uneasy tome. Here I had occasion to consider that things, though small in themselves,being clearly enjoined by divine authority, become great things to us; and Itrusted that the Lord would support me in the trials that might attendsingularity, so long as singularity was only for His sake. On this account Iwas under close exercise of mind in the time of our General Spring Meeting,1762, greatly desiring to be rightly directed; when, being deeply bowed in spirit before the Lord, I was made willing to submit to what I apprehended wasrequired of me, and when I returned home got a hat of the natural color of thefur. The Epicurean philosophy of life and mind is completed by a sketch of human progress from its earliest beginnings to the complete establishment of civilisation. Here our principal authority is Lucretius; and no part of his great poem has attracted so much attention and admiration in recent times as that in which he so vividly places before us the condition of primitive men with all its miseries, and the slow steps whereby family life, civil society, religion, industry, and science arose out of the original chaos and war of all against each. But it seems likely that here, as elsewhere, Lucretius did no more than copy and colour the outlines already traced by his master hand.189 How far Epicurus himself is to be credited with this brilliant forecast of modern researches into the history of civilisation, is a more difficult question. When we99 consider that the most important parts of his philosophy were compiled from older systems, and that the additions made by himself do not indicate any great capacity for original research, we are forced to conclude that, here also, he is indebted to some authority whose name has not been preserved. The development of civilisation out of barbarism seems, indeed, to have been a standing doctrine of Greek Humanism, just as the opposite doctrine of degeneracy was characteristic of the naturalistic school. It is implied in the discourse of Protagoras reported by Plato, and also, although less fully, in the introduction to the History of Thucydides. Plato and Aristotle trace back the intellectual and social progress of mankind to very rude beginnings; while both writers assume that it was effected without any supernatural aid攁 point marked to the exclusive credit of Epicurus by M. Guyau.190 The old notion of a golden age, accepted as it was by so powerful a school as Stoicism, must have been the chief obstacle to a belief in progress; but the Prometheus of Aeschylus, with its vivid picture of the miseries suffered by primitive men through their ignorance of the useful arts, shows that a truer conception had already gained ground quite independently of philosophic theories. That the primitive state was one of lawless violence was declared by another dramatic poet, Critias, who has also much to say about the civilising function of religion;191 and shortly before the time of Epicurus the same view was put forward by Euphorion, in a passage of which, as it will probably be new to many of our readers, we subjoin a translation:? When officers who are anxiously endeavouring to get troops to answer thedemands of their superiors see men who are insincere pretend scruples ofconscience in hopes of being excused from a dangerous employment, it is likelythey will be roughly handled. In this time of commotion some of our young menleft these parts and tarried abroad till it was over; some came, and proposedto go as soldiers; others appeared to have a real tender scruple in their mindsagainst joining in wars, and were much humbled under the apprehension of atrial so near. I had conversation with several of them to my satisfaction. Whenthe captain came to town, some of the last-mentioned went and told him insubstance as follows: -- That they could not bear arms for conscience' sake;nor could they hire any to go in their places, being resigned as to the event. We have now to consider how Aristotle treats psychology, not in connexion with biology, but as a distinct science攁 separation not quite consistent with his own definition of soul, but forced on him by the traditions of Greek philosophy and by the nature of things. Here the fundamental antithesis assumes a three-fold form. First the theoretical activity of mind is distinguished from its practical activity; the one being exercised on things which cannot, the other on things which365 can, be changed. Again, a similar distinction prevails within the special province of each. Where truth is the object, knowledge stands opposed to sense; where good is sought, reason rises superior to passion. The one antithesis had been introduced into philosophy by the early physicists, the other by Socrates. They were confounded in the psychology of Plato, and Aristotle had the merit of separating them once more. Yet even he preserves a certain artificial parallelism between them by using the common name Nous, or reason, to denote the controlling member in each. To make his anthropology still more complex, there is a third antithesis to be taken into account, that between the individual and the community, which also sometimes slides into a partial coincidence with the other two. On the 31st of Fifth Month, 1761, I was taken ill of a fever, and after ithad continued near a week, I was in great distress of body. One day there was acry raised in me that I might understand the cause of my affliction, andimprove under it, and my conformity to some customs which I believed were notright was brought to my remembrance. In the continuance of this exercise I feltall the powers in me yield themselves up into the hands of Him who gave mebeing, and was made thankful that He had taken hold of me by His chastisements. Aristotle is more successful when he proceeds to discuss the imagination. He explains it to be a continuance of the movement originally communicated by the felt object to the organ of sense, kept up in the absence of the object itself;攁s near an approach to the truth as could be made in his time. And he is also right in saying that the operations of reason are only made possible by the help of what he calls phantasms攖hat is, faint reproductions of sensations. In addition to this, he points out the connexion between memory and imagination, and enumerates the laws of association briefly, but with great accuracy. He is, however, altogether unaware of their scope. So far from using them to explain all the mental processes, he does not even see that they account for involuntary reminiscence, and limits them to the voluntary operation by which we recall a missing name or other image to consciousness. 可以直接看得黄片 � This exercise came upon me in the afternoon on the second day of the YearlyMeeting, and on going to bed I got no sleep till my mind was wholly resignedthereto. In the morning I inquired of a Friend how long the Assembly was likelyto continue sitting, who told me it was expected to be prorogued that day orthe next. As I was desirous to attend the business of the meeting, andperceived the Assembly was likely to separate before the business was over,after considerable exercise, humbly seeking to the Lord for instruction, mymind settled to attend on the business of the meeting; on the last day of whichI had prepared a short essay of a petition to be presented to the Legislature,if way opened. And being informed that there were some appointed by that YearlyMeeting to speak with those in authority on cases relating to the Society, Iopened my mind to several of them, and showed them the essay I had made, andafterwards I opened the case in the meeting for business, in substance asfollows: -I have been under a concern for some time on account of the great number ofslaves which are imported into this colony. I am aware that it is a tenderpoint to speak to, but apprehend I am not clear in the sight of Heaven withoutdoing so. I have prepared an essay of a petition to be presented to theLegislature, if way open; and what I have to propose to this meeting is thatsome Friends may be named to withdraw and look over it, and report whether theybelieve it suitable to be read in the meeting. If they should think well ofreading it, it will remain for the meeting to consider whether to take anyfurther notice of it, as a meeting, or not. When I remember the saying of the Most High through His prophet, "This peoplehave I formed for myself; they shall show forth My praise," and think ofplacing children among such to learn the practice of sailing, the consistencyof it with a pious education seems to me like that mentioned by the prophet,"There is no answer from God."Profane examples are very corrupting and very forcible. And as my mind dayafter day and night after night hath been affected with a sympathizingtenderness towards poor children who are put to the employment of sailors, Ihave sometimes had weighty conversation with the sailors in the steerage, whowere mostly respectful to me, and became more so the longer I was with them. From Newport we went to Greenwich, Shanticut, and Warwick, and were helped tolabour amongst Friends in the love of our gracious Redeemer. Afterwards,accompanied by our friend John Casey from Newport, we rode through Connecticutto Oblong, visited the meetings in those parts, and thence proceeded to theQuarterly Meeting at Ryewoods. Through the gracious extendings of divine help,we had some seasoning opportunities in those places. We also visited Friends atNew York and Flushing, and thence to Rahway. Here our roads parting, I tookleave of my beloved companion and true yokemate Samuel Eastburn, and reachedhome the 10th of Eighth Month, where I found my family well. For the favoursand protection of the Lord, both inward and outward, extended to me in thisjourney, my heart is humbled in grateful acknowledgments, and I find reneweddesires to dwell and walk in resignedness before Him. �