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时间: 2019年12月08日 02:52

Such was the state of Spain, though nominally conquered by the French. It was only held by a vast force, and there was no prospect that this force could ever be dispensed with. Joseph was so heartily tired of his kingdom that, on going to Paris to attend Napoleon's marriage, he declared that he would abdicate unless he were made generalissimo of all the forces in Spain, the separate generals, in their own provinces, paying but little regard to his commands, but each acting as if viceroy of his own province. To Napoleon the state of things was equally irksome. The drain of men and money was intolerable, and appeared without prospect of any end. He resolved, therefore, to make a gigantic effort to drive the British out of Portugal, when he hoped to be able to subjugate Spain. He could not yet proceed thither himself, but he sent heavy reinforcements under Drouet and Junot, and dispatched Massena, who was reckoned the greatest general next to himself, to drive Wellington into the sea. Massena had been so uniformly victorious, that Buonaparte styled him "the dear child of victory," and had made him Prince of Esslingen. I told him I was free to have a conference with them all together in aprivate house; or, if he thought they would take it unkind to be asked to cometogether, and to be spoken with in the hearing of one another, I was free tospend some time amongst them, and to visit them all in their own houses. Heexpressed his liking to the first proposal, not doubting their willingness tocome together; and, as I proposed a visit to only ministers, elders, andoverseers, he named some others whom he desired might also be present. A careful messenger being wanted to acquaint them in a proper manner, he offeredto go to all their houses, to open the matter to them, -- and did so. About theeighth hour the next morning we met in the meeting-house chamber, the last-mentioned country Friend, my companion, and John Storer being with us. After ashort time of retirement, I acquainted them with the steps I had taken inprocuring that meeting, and opened the concern I was under, and we thenproceeded to a free conference upon the subject. My exercise was heavy, and Iwas deeply bowed in spirit before the Lord, who was pleased to favour with theseasoning virtue of truth, which wrought a tenderness amongst us; and thesubject was mutually handled in a calm and peaceable spirit. At length, feelingmy mind released from the burden which I had been under, I took my leave ofthem in a good degree of satisfaction; and by the tenderness they manifested inregard to the practice, and the concern several of them expressed in relationto the manner of disposing of their negroes after their decease, I believedthat a good exercise was spreading amongst them: and I am humbly thankful toGod, who supported my mind and preserved me in a good degree of resignationthrough these trials. The case is difficult to some who have slaves, but if such set aside all self-interest, and come to be weaned from the desire of getting estates, or evenfrom holding them together, when truth requires the contrary, I believe waywill so open that they will know how to steer through those difficulties."Many Friends appeared to be deeply bowed under the weight of the work, andmanifested much firmness in their love to the cause of truth and universalrighteousness on the earth. And though none did openly justify the practice ofslave-keeping in general, yet some appeared concerned lest the meeting shouldgo into such measures as might give uneasiness to many brethren, alleging that,if Friends patiently continued under the exercise, the Lord in His time mightopen a way for the deliverance of these people. Finding an engagement to speak,I said, "My mind is often led to consider the purity of the divine Being, andthe justice of His judgments; and herein my soul is covered with awfulness. Icannot omit to hint of some cases where people have not been treated with thepurity of justice, and the event hath been lamentable. Many slaves on thiscontinent are oppressed, and their cries have reached the ears of the MostHigh. Such are the purity and certainty of His judgments, that He cannot bepartial in our favour. In infinite love and goodness, He hath opened ourunderstanding from one time to another concerning our duty towards this people,and it is not a time for delay. Should we now be sensible of what He requiresof us, and through a respect to the private interest of some persons, orthrough a regard to some friendships which do not stand on an immutablefoundation, neglect to do our duty in firmness and constancy, still waiting forsome extraordinary means to bring about their deliverance, God may by terriblethings in righteousness answer us in this matter."Many faithful brethren laboured with great firmness, and the love of truth ina good degree prevailed. Several who had negroes expressed their desire that arule might be made to deal with such Friends as offenders who bought slaves infuture. To this it was answered that the root of this evil would never beeffectually struck at, until a thorough search was made in the circumstances ofsuch Friends as kept negroes, with respect to the righteousness of theirmotives in keeping them, that impartial justice might be administeredthroughout. Several Friends expressed their desire that a visit might be madeto such Friends as kept slaves, and many others said that they believed libertywas the negro's right; to which, at length, no opposition was publicly made. Aminute was made more full on that subject than any heretofore; and the names of several Friends entered who were free to join in a visit to such as keptslaves. But the Indians knowing that this Moravian and I were of different religioussocieties, and as some of their people had encouraged him to come and stayawhile with them, they were, I believe, concerned that there might be nojarring or discord in their meetings; and having, I suppose, conferredtogether, they acquainted me that the people, at my request, would at any timecome together and hold meetings. They also told me that they expected theMoravian would speak in their settled meetings, which are commonly held in themorning and near evening. So finding liberty in my heart to speak to theMoravian, I told him of the care I felt on my mind for the good of thesepeople, and my belief that no ill effects would follow if I sometimes spake intheir meetings when love engaged me thereto, without calling them together attimes when they did not meet of course. He expressed his good-will towards myspeaking at any time all that I found in my heart to say. AVING felt my mind drawn towards a visit to a few meetings in Pennsylvania, Iwas very desirous to be rightly instructed as to the time of setting off. Onthe 10th of the Fifth Month, 1761, being the first day of the week, I went toHaddonfield Meeting, concluding to seek for heavenly instruction, and comehome, or go on, as I might then believe best for me, and there through thespringing up of pure love I felt encouragement, and so crossed the river. Inthis visit I was at two Quarterly and three Monthly Meetings, and in the love of truth I felt my way open to labour with some noted Friends who kept negroes. To all which I replied in substance as follows: that Noah and his family wereall who survived the flood, according to Scripture; and as Noah was of Seth'srace, the family of Cain was wholly destroyed. One of them said that after theflood Ham went to the land of Nod and took a wife; that Nod was a land fardistant, inhabited by Cain's race, and that the flood did not reach it; and asHam was sentenced to be a servant of servants to his brethren, these twofamilies, being thus joined, were undoubtedly fit only for slaves. I replied,the flood was a judgment upon the world for their abominations, and it wasgranted that Cain's stock was the most wicked, and therefore unreasonable tosuppose that they were spared. As to Ham's going to the land of Nod for a wife,no time being fixed, Nod might be inhabited by some of Noah's family before Hammarried a second time; moreover the text saith "That all flesh died that movedupon the earth" (Gen. vii. 21). I further reminded them how the prophetsrepeatedly declare "that the son shall not suffer for the iniquity of thefather, but every one be answerable for his own sins."I was troubled to perceive the darkness of their imaginations, and in somepressure of spirit said, "The love of ease and gain are the motives in generalof keeping slaves, and men are wont to take hold of weak arguments to support acause which is unreasonable. I have no interest on either side, save only theinterest which I desire to have in the truth. I believe liberty is their right,and as I see they are not only deprived of it, but treated in other respectswith inhumanity in many places, I believe He who is a refuge for the oppressedwill, in His own time, plead their cause, and happy will it be for such as walkin uprightness before Him." And thus our conversation ended. 特别黄的免费大片视频|日本一级特黄大片免色|一级特黄大片 录像i_主页* To all which I replied in substance as follows: that Noah and his family wereall who survived the flood, according to Scripture; and as Noah was of Seth'srace, the family of Cain was wholly destroyed. One of them said that after theflood Ham went to the land of Nod and took a wife; that Nod was a land fardistant, inhabited by Cain's race, and that the flood did not reach it; and asHam was sentenced to be a servant of servants to his brethren, these twofamilies, being thus joined, were undoubtedly fit only for slaves. I replied,the flood was a judgment upon the world for their abominations, and it wasgranted that Cain's stock was the most wicked, and therefore unreasonable tosuppose that they were spared. As to Ham's going to the land of Nod for a wife,no time being fixed, Nod might be inhabited by some of Noah's family before Hammarried a second time; moreover the text saith "That all flesh died that movedupon the earth" (Gen. vii. 21). I further reminded them how the prophetsrepeatedly declare "that the son shall not suffer for the iniquity of thefather, but every one be answerable for his own sins."I was troubled to perceive the darkness of their imaginations, and in somepressure of spirit said, "The love of ease and gain are the motives in generalof keeping slaves, and men are wont to take hold of weak arguments to support acause which is unreasonable. I have no interest on either side, save only theinterest which I desire to have in the truth. I believe liberty is their right,and as I see they are not only deprived of it, but treated in other respectswith inhumanity in many places, I believe He who is a refuge for the oppressedwill, in His own time, plead their cause, and happy will it be for such as walkin uprightness before Him." And thus our conversation ended. [470] This disease being in a house, and my business calling me to go near it,incites me to consider whether this is a real indispensable duty; whether it isnot in conformity to some custom which would be better laid aside, or whetherit does not proceed from too eager a pursuit after some outward treasure. Ifthe business before me springs not from a clear understanding and a regard tothat use of things which perfect wisdom approves, to be brought to a sense ofit and stopped in my pursuit is a kindness, for when I proceed to businesswithout some evidence of duty, I have found by experience that it tends toweakness. Pitt's expeditions were not particularly well arranged. Instead of sending an army of thirty or forty thousand to the Baltic, and calling on Russia to do the same, which she could have done, notwithstanding the army under the Emperor Alexander, he sent only about six thousand, and sent another eight thousand from Malta, to co-operate with twelve thousand Russians in a descent on the kingdom of Naples. This expedition might have been left till the success in the North was secured; in truth, it had better have been left altogether. When General Don and Lord Cathcart landed in Swedish Pomerania, and were joined by the king's German legion and some other German hired troops, our army amounted only to sixteen thousand men, the Swedes to twelve thousand, and the Russians to ten thousand攁ltogether, not forty thousand men. But what was worse than the paucity of numbers was the disunion amongst the commanders. Lord Harrowby was sent to Berlin, to endeavour to induce Prussia to join this coalition, but Prussia was well aware of the want of unity in the Allied Army, and, weighing probabilities, she could not be moved. The King of Sweden was so incensed at the cold, shuffling conduct of the King of Prussia, that he wrote him some very indignant and undiplomatic letters, which only furnished him with a further excuse for holding aloof. Gustavus, seeing no good likely to be done, resigned his command of the Allied Army, where, indeed, he had enjoyed no real command at all, and retired with his forces to Stralsund. This was a fatal exposition of want of unity, and it was not till three weeks were gone that the breach was healed. By this time it was the middle of November. Ulm had surrendered, Napoleon was master of Vienna, and Prussia was still watching what would be the fate of the coming battle between Napoleon and the Emperors of Austria and Russia. The union of the Allies came too late; the force was altogether too small to turn the scale of the campaign. Had Gustavus marched into Hanover a month earlier, with sixty thousand men, he might have rendered Austerlitz a nonentity; as it was, he had only time to invest Hameln, where Bernadotte had left a strong garrison, when the news of Austerlitz arrived, and caused the Allies to break up the campaign, and each to hurry off to his own country. Christ being the Prince of Peace, and we being no more than ministers, it isnecessary for us not only to feel a concern in our first going forth, but toexperience the renewing thereof in the appointment of meetings. I felt aconcern in America to prepare for this voyage, and being through the mercy ofGod brought safe hither, my heart was like a vessel that wanted vent. Forseveral weeks after my arrival, when my mouth was opened in meetings, it waslike the raising of a gate in a water-course when a weight of water lay uponit. In these labours there was a fresh visitation to many, especially to theyouth; but sometimes I felt poor and empty, and yet there appeared a necessityto appoint meetings. In this I was exercised to abide in the pure life oftruth, and in all my labours to watch diligently against the motions of self inmy own mind.